In this article, I explore the evidence about connections between the media system as explanatory macro-level for media use and media effects on an individual, micro-level. Addressing this context from a comparative, media system-related perspective, N=42 papers were analyzed in a comprehensive literature review. Core results show that systematic connections exist between structural differences of media systems and patterns of individual media use and media effects. More findings are available for newspapers and television than for the internet and social media. Empirical evidence is given for media system-related differences in political knowledge, and the degree of political parallelism in media systems matters for political participation. Overall, the studies show that the media system as a context matters for explaining individual media use and effects. Perspectives for future research are derived from the current state of research.